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让ros机器人行走、建图、路径规划、定位和导航

一无所有就是编程的理由2020-10-22 06:37:54


准备导航所需要的包。

           a.ros-kinetic-gampping :我们不需要修改包内的东西,所以直接安装可执行文件就好了。

 sudo apt-get install ros-kinetic-slam-gmapping

           b.安装雷达的驱动(我的是robopack),直接将提供的ros驱动包拷贝到工作空间中,

           c.安装导航定位包,navigation 进入git:https://github.com/ros-planning/navigation/tree/indigo-devel,下载和自己ros版本匹配的包,解压到自己的工作空间中,

cd ~/catkin_ws
catkin_make

indigo的navigation包会出现一个依赖问题,:Orocos-bfl not found while installing navigation stack ROS indigo + Ubuntu 14.04

解决方法:
rosdep install --from-paths src --ignore-src --rosdistro indigo -y

       d.由于导航包在/cmd_val下发布的移动数据加速度会过于不友好,所以我们需要对速度做平滑处理,其实就是控制加速,一般通过滤波即可实现,在此我们采用turtlebot的平滑包即可,

 安装平滑包yocs_velocity_smoother,具体的平滑算法和输入切换请自己阅读源码。

apt-get install ros-indigo-yocs-velocity-smoother

所有的包准包好后,我们去准备启动所需的launch文件,首先是机器人地盘的启动文件base_controller.launch:

<launch>

    <param name="use_sim_time" value="false" />

    <node name="link_laser" pkg="tf" type="static_transform_publisher" args="0.15 0 0.15 0 0 0 base_link laser 50"/> 
    <node name="link_footprint" pkg="tf" type="static_transform_publisher" args="0 0 0 0 0 0 base_link base_footprint 50"/>

    <node pkg="odom_tf_package" type="tf_broadcaster_node" name="serial_send_recevice" output="screen"/>


    <include file="$(find odom_tf_package)/launch/include/rplidar_ros.launch.xml">
   </include>    <arg name="node_name"             value="velocity_smoother"/>  <arg name="nodelet_manager_name"  value="nodelet_manager"/>  <arg name="config_file"           value="$(find odom_tf_package)/config/yocs_velocity_smoother.yaml"/>  <arg name="raw_cmd_vel_topic"     value="cmd_vel"/>  <arg name="smooth_cmd_vel_topic"  value="smoother_cmd_vel"/>  <arg name="robot_cmd_vel_topic"   value="robot_cmd_vel"/>  <arg name="odom_topic"            value="odom"/>    <!-- nodelet manager -->  <node pkg="nodelet" type="nodelet" name="$(arg nodelet_manager_name)" args="manager"/>    <!-- velocity smoother -->  <include file="$(find yocs_velocity_smoother)/launch/velocity_smoother.launch">    <arg name="node_name"             value="$(arg node_name)"/>    <arg name="nodelet_manager_name"  value="$(arg nodelet_manager_name)"/>    <arg name="config_file"           value="$(arg config_file)"/>    <arg name="raw_cmd_vel_topic"     value="$(arg raw_cmd_vel_topic)"/>    <arg name="smooth_cmd_vel_topic"  value="$(arg smooth_cmd_vel_topic)"/>    <arg name="robot_cmd_vel_topic"   value="$(arg robot_cmd_vel_topic)"/>    <arg name="odom_topic"            value="$(arg odom_topic)"/>  </include> </launch>

2.然后去准备建图包的启动文件gmapping.launch

<launch>

  <arg name="scan_topic" default="scan" />

  <node pkg="gmapping" type="slam_gmapping" name="slam_gmapping" output="screen" clear_params="true">

    <!--because my used rtabmap_ros -->
    <param name="odom_frame" value="/odom""/>
    <!--param name="odom_frame" value="/base_controller/odom""/-->
    <param name="map_update_interval" value="30.0"/>

    <!-- Set maxUrange < actual maximum range of the Laser -->
    <param name="maxRange" value="5.0"/>
    <param name="maxUrange" value="4.5"/>
    <param name="sigma" value="0.05"/>
    <param name="kernelSize" value="1"/>
    <param name="lstep" value="0.05"/>
    <param name="astep" value="0.05"/>
    <param name="iterations" value="5"/>
    <param name="lsigma" value="0.075"/>
    <param name="ogain" value="3.0"/>
    <param name="lskip" value="0"/>
    <param name="srr" value="0.01"/>
    <param name="srt" value="0.02"/>
    <param name="str" value="0.01"/>
    <param name="stt" value="0.02"/>
    <param name="linearUpdate" value="0.5"/>
    <param name="angularUpdate" value="0.436"/>
    <param name="temporalUpdate" value="-1.0"/>
    <param name="resampleThreshold" value="0.5"/>
    <param name="particles" value="80"/>
  <!--
    <param name="xmin" value="-50.0"/>
    <param name="ymin" value="-50.0"/>
    <param name="xmax" value="50.0"/>
    <param name="ymax" value="50.0"/>
  make the starting size small for the benefit of the Android client's memory...
  -->
    <param name="xmin" value="-1.0"/>
    <param name="ymin" value="-1.0"/>
    <param name="xmax" value="1.0"/>
    <param name="ymax" value="1.0"/>

    <param name="delta" value="0.05"/>
    <param name="llsamplerange" value="0.01"/>
    <param name="llsamplestep" value="0.01"/>
    <param name="lasamplerange" value="0.005"/>
    <param name="lasamplestep" value="0.005"/>
    <remap from="scan" to="$(arg scan_topic)"/>
  </node>
</launch>

3,导航包(move_base)和定位(amcl)的启动文件:savvy_amcl.launch

<launch>

  <param name="use_sim_time" value="false" />

  <!-- Set the name of the map yaml file: can be overridden on the command line. -->
  <arg name="map" default="map.yaml" />

  <!--node name="map_odom" pkg="tf" type="static_transform_publisher" args="0 0 0 0 0 0 map odom 50"/-->  

  <!-- Run the map server with the desired map -->
  <node name="map_server" pkg="map_server" type="map_server" args="$(find savvy)/maps/$(arg map)"/>

  <!-- The move_base node -->
  <include file="$(find savvy)/launch/move_base_amcl.launch" />
  
  <!--zxw add Fire up AMCL-->
  <include file="$(find savvy)/launch/tb_amcl.launch" />
  

</launch>

move_base_amcl.launch:

<launch>

  <node pkg="move_base" type="move_base" respawn="false" name="move_base" output="screen" clear_params="true">
    <rosparam file="$(find savvy)/config/savvyconfig/costmap_common_params.yaml" command="load" ns="global_costmap" />
    <rosparam file="$(find savvy)/config/savvyconfig/costmap_common_params.yaml" command="load" ns="local_costmap" />
    <rosparam file="$(find savvy)/config/savvyconfig/local_costmap_params.yaml" command="load" />
    <rosparam file="$(find savvy)/config/savvyconfig/global_costmap_params.yaml" command="load" />
    <rosparam file="$(find savvy)/config/savvyconfig/base_local_planner_params.yaml" command="load" />

    <rosparam file="$(find savvy)/config/nav_obstacles_params.yaml" command="load" />
  </node>
  
</launch>

tb_amcl.launch:

<launch>

  <arg name="use_map_topic" default="false"/>


  <arg name="scan_topic" default="scan"/>

  <node pkg="amcl" type="amcl" name="amcl" clear_params="true">


    <param name="use_map_topic" value="$(arg use_map_topic)"/>
    <!-- Publish scans from best pose at a max of 10 Hz -->
    <param name="odom_model_type" value="diff"/>
    <param name="odom_alpha5" value="0.1"/>
    <param name="gui_publish_rate" value="10.0"/>
    <param name="laser_max_beams" value="60"/>
    <param name="laser_max_range" value="12.0"/>
    <param name="min_particles" value="500"/>
    <param name="max_particles" value="2000"/>
    <param name="kld_err" value="0.05"/>
    <param name="kld_z" value="0.99"/>
    <param name="odom_alpha1" value="0.2"/>
    <param name="odom_alpha2" value="0.2"/>
    <!-- translation std dev, m -->
    <param name="odom_alpha3" value="0.2"/>
    <param name="odom_alpha4" value="0.2"/>
    <param name="laser_z_hit" value="0.5"/>
    <param name="laser_z_short" value="0.05"/>
    <param name="laser_z_max" value="0.05"/>
    <param name="laser_z_rand" value="0.5"/>
    <param name="laser_sigma_hit" value="0.2"/>
    <param name="laser_lambda_short" value="0.1"/>
    <param name="laser_model_type" value="likelihood_field"/>
    <!-- <param name="laser_model_type" value="beam"/> -->
    <param name="laser_likelihood_max_dist" value="2.0"/>
    <param name="update_min_d" value="0.25"/>
    <param name="update_min_a" value="0.2"/>

    <param name="odom_frame_id" value="odom"/>

    <param name="resample_interval" value="1"/>
    <!-- Increase tolerance because the computer can get quite busy -->
    <param name="transform_tolerance" value="1.0"/>
    <param name="recovery_alpha_slow" value="0.0"/>
    <param name="recovery_alpha_fast" value="0.0"/>
    <remap from="scan" to="$(arg scan_topic)"/>
  </node>
</launch>

4.导航的配置参数如下:

base_local_planner_params.yaml

controller_frequency: 2.0recovery_behavior_enabled: falseclearing_rotation_allowed: falseTrajectoryPlannerROS:
   max_vel_x: 0.3
   min_vel_x: 0.05
   max_vel_y: 0.0  # zero for a differential drive robot
   min_vel_y: 0.0
   min_in_place_vel_theta: 0.5
   escape_vel: -0.1
   acc_lim_x: 2.5
   acc_lim_y: 0.0 # zero for a differential drive robot
   acc_lim_theta: 3.2

   holonomic_robot: false
   yaw_goal_tolerance: 0.1 # about 6 degrees
   xy_goal_tolerance: 0.15  # 10 cm
   latch_xy_goal_tolerance: false
   pdist_scale: 0.8
   gdist_scale: 0.6
   meter_scoring: true

   heading_lookahead: 0.325
   heading_scoring: false
   heading_scoring_timestep: 0.8
   occdist_scale: 0.1
   oscillation_reset_dist: 0.05
   publish_cost_grid_pc: false
   prune_plan: true

   sim_time: 2.5
   sim_granularity: 0.025
   angular_sim_granularity: 0.025
   vx_samples: 8
   vy_samples: 0 # zero for a differential drive robot
   vtheta_samples: 20
   dwa: true
   simple_attractor: false

costmap_common_params.yaml

obstacle_range: 2.5raytrace_range: 3.0robot_radius: 0.30inflation_radius: 0.15max_obstacle_height: 0.6min_obstacle_height: 0.0observation_sources: scan
scan: {data_type: LaserScan, topic: /scan, marking: true, clearing: true, expected_update_rate: 0}

global_costmap_params.yaml

global_costmap:
   global_frame: /map
   robot_base_frame: /base_link
   update_frequency: 1.0
   publish_frequency: 0
   static_map: true
   rolling_window: false
   resolution: 0.01
   transform_tolerance: 0.5
   map_type: costmap

local_costmap_params.yaml

local_costmap:
   global_frame: /odom
   robot_base_frame: /base_link
   update_frequency: 1.0
   publish_frequency: 1.0
   static_map: false
   rolling_window: true
   width: 6.0
   height: 6.0
   resolution: 0.01
   transform_tolerance: 0.5
   map_type: costmap

四,准备好以上所有的启动文件和配置参数后,我们开始创建地图和导航,

1.创建地图:

roslaunch savvy base_controller.launch   //启动地盘控制器
roslaunch savvy gmapping.launch        
roscd savvy/maps/rosrun map_server map_saver -f mymap


然后会产生以下地图文件
mymap.pgm  mymap.yaml

2.开始导航

roslaunch savvy base_controller.launch //启动地盘控制器
roslaunch savvy savvy_amcl.launch map:=mymap.yaml
rosrun rviz rviz -d `rospack find savvy`/nav_test.rviz  

然后指定导航目标,开始自己慢慢玩吧,不过因为我的TF变换主要是里程计更新的,车体打滑或者地盘电机震荡都会积累误差,所以我们必须添加视觉里成计或者闭环检测。